全球高纯石英原料矿的资源分布与开发现状
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P619.23+3

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中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费(KK1703,KK2005);中国地质调查局地质矿产调查评价专项项目(DD20190817,DD20190816,DD20190606)


Global high purity quartz deposits: Resources distribution and exploitation status
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    摘要:

    高纯石英是集成电路、半导体芯片、光伏、光纤、新型玻璃等产业必不可少的关键原料,但是能够生产高纯石英的矿床极为稀缺。梳理全球高纯石英原料矿床的资源分布和开发现状,发现矿床分布于美国、澳大利亚、挪威、俄罗斯、中国、毛里塔尼亚、加拿大等国家,除中国外,共有14处矿床,美国和澳大利亚的资源量最大。矿床类型包括白岗岩型、伟晶岩型、热液脉石英型、风化残积型、尾矿型,其中热液脉石英型分布最广。优质矿石多产于太古宙-元古宙黑云母片麻岩、花岗片麻岩、片岩等古老变质岩系中,受古生代-中生代花岗质岩浆活动控制,经历了长期而缓慢的变质过程。我国高纯石英原料矿床尤为紧缺,在当前国际政治经济环境下,作为战略性矿产资源,高纯石英的资源安全形势尤其严峻。一方面,我国应立足国内石英资源,大力加强境内太古宙-元古宙变质岩系中纯度较高的玻璃用脉石英、伟晶岩、白岗岩的地质调查和质量评价,关注花岗闪长岩、伟晶岩和高岭土矿开采后残留尾矿中的石英,开展选矿实验,评估资源潜力;另一方面,应打破高纯石英砂进口渠道多年来依赖美国的境况,加大挪威、俄罗斯、毛里塔尼亚等国的进口力度,拓展高纯石英的来源渠道,维护国家战略安全。

    Abstract:

    High purity quartz, a strategical material that is indispensable for producing integrated circuit, semiconductor, photovoltaics, optical fiber and novel glass, has seen growing demand worldwide. Ore deposits from which high purity quartz is extracted, however, are extremely rare throughout the world. Present ore deposits, including active and inactive, are located in the USA, Australia, Norway, Russia, China, Mauritania, and Canada, with resources in the USA and Australia possessing top reserves. Apart from China, there are 14 ore deposits, and their types include alaskite, pegmatite, hydrothermal quartz vein, tailings, and weathered granitoid. Ore fluids yielding the purest quartz were more likely differentiated from Paleozoic-Mesozoic magmas, and intruded ambient Archaean-Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, such as biotite gneiss, granite gneiss and schist, controlled by long-term multi-stage metamorphism. China is faced with a much more severe difficulty as it barely preserves any high purity quartz deposits, leading to massive import annually for high purity quartz sands, especially from the USA. Under current fluctuating global economic and political environments, China's premier task undoubtedly is to put more effort on geological survey on domestic Archaean-Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, and meanwhile intensify quality assessment, aiming toidentify hydrothermal veins, pegmatite, and alaskite that possess potential for extracting high purity quartz. Attentions should be paid to quartz in tailings from granodiorite, pegmatite, kaolin ores, and beneficiation trails should be implemented to evaluate their resource potentiality. In addition, China should build diversified pipelines for importing high purity quartz sands and products, and shift from sole reliance on the USA to other countries, such as Norway, Russia and Mauritania, thus providing safe and stable resource supply for national security.

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王九一,2021,全球高纯石英原料矿的资源分布与开发现状[J].岩石矿物学杂志,40(1):131~141.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-08-12
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-16
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