柴达木盆地中东部表土盐类矿物分布特征及其与盐尘暴物源联系
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P169.21+1;P425.5+5

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第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0805);青海省应用基础研究计划项目(2018-ZJ-723);青海省创新平台项目(2018-ZJ-T10)


Distribution characteristics of salt minerals on the surface in the middle east of Qaidam Basin and their relationship with the source of salt dust storm
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    摘要:

    柴达木盆地盐湖众多,表土盐渍化和盐漠化极为发育,含盐表土经风吹蚀后产生的大量盐尘将危害盆地生态环境和人类健康。笔者在柴达木盆地中东部系统采集129个不同类型的表土样品,对其中盐类矿物成分及分布特征进行了分析。分析结果表明,表土中的主要盐类矿物是石盐、石膏以及少量的无水芒硝;盆地中东部含盐量高值区集中分布在尕斯库勒湖以东的一里坪盐湖、西台吉乃尔盐湖和东台吉乃尔盐湖周边以及中部格尔木-诺木洪一带绿洲前缘的区域;盆地不同表土的含盐量从高到低依次为干盐滩(盐壳)、雅丹、盐化草原、戈壁滩和沙漠。研究结果显示,雅丹和干盐滩很可能是盐尘暴的主要物源区,其他类型表土贡献较小;表土含盐特征及其分布规律可能受区域构造、盐湖演化、气候与水文等多种因素的影响。本文成果可以为柴达木盆地盐尘暴的形成机制和灾害防治等提供重要科学依据。

    Abstract:

    There are many salt lakes in the Qaidam Basin, and topsoil salinization and salinization are well developed. A large amount of salt dust produced by wind erosion of these saline topsoil will harm the ecological environment and human health of the basin. Therefore, the authors systematically collected 129 different types of topsoil samples in the middle east of Qaidam Basin, and analyzed the composition and distribution characteristics of salt minerals. The result shows that the main salt minerals in the topsoil include halite, gypsum and a small amount of thenardite; In the middle east of the basin, the high-value area of salt content is concentrated in the vicinity of Yiliping Salt Lake, East-West Ginair Lake in the east of Gas Hure Lake and the area of the oasis front in central Golmud-Nuomuhong area; the salt content of different topsoil in the basin is in order of playa, Yardang, saline meadow, Gobi desert and desert. The comprehensive analysis shows that Yardang and playa are probably the main source areas of salt dust storm, and other types of topsoil contribute less; the characteristics and distribution of salt in topsoil may be influenced by many factors, such as structure, salt lake evolution, climate and hydrology. The results of this study can provide important scientific basis for the formation mechanism of salt dust storm and disaster prevention in Qaidam Basin.

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耿鋆,张西营,李雯霞,郭晓宁,张海潇,唐启亮,陈亮,2021,柴达木盆地中东部表土盐类矿物分布特征及其与盐尘暴物源联系[J].岩石矿物学杂志,40(1):121~130.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-09-10
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-16
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