青海別勒滩试验区低品位固体钾盐液化开采的野外实验研究
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P619.21+1

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青海省自然科学基金(2019-ZJ-917);国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFC0604801);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(KK2005);全国矿产资源国情调查与综合评价(DD20190606)


A study of the field experimental liquefaction and exploitation of low-grade solid potassium resource in the Bieletan experimental area, Qinghai Province
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    摘要:

    我国是一个钾盐资源贫乏的国家,长期依靠进口。在我国,钾盐找矿难度较大,经过50多年的勘查,盐湖找钾已很难有新的大突破。但值得注意的是,在察尔汗盐湖、马海、罗布泊等地有数亿吨低品位固体钾盐,这些资源相当于一个超大型钾矿,对低品位固体钾盐的开发是缓解我国钾盐短缺重要的、可行的方向。本文在青海別勒滩试验区对3米以浅地层进行了野外溶矿实验,研究低品位固体钾盐固液转化过程中的水动力学和水化学变化等问题。研究发现,溶矿过程中试验区内不同时间、不同单元探坑中水位变化差别较大,表明別勒滩地区在地质结构、构造,特别是孔隙度等方面存在较大差异;溶矿过程中试验区内不同时间、不同单元探坑中卤水的KCl含量有差异,溶矿初期,探坑内卤水KCl含量变化与水位埋深呈相反趋势,水位抬升效果最好的区域其卤水品质较差;随着溶剂的不断补充和与固体钾矿反应时间的增加,卤水KCl含量整体趋于平均,但总体上含量较低。经过几个月的溶矿实验,探坑中卤水KCl含量仍较低,溶矿效果不理想。这可能是因为近几年对低品位固体钾盐持续开采,地层中钾盐矿物含量降低导致溶矿后卤水中KCl含量降低。因此,需要对浅部矿床地质特征进行精准评估,精细化分形溶采管理,以避免盲目补给溶剂,造成无效溶解,使得溶采工程低效率运行,生产成本提高。

    Abstract:

    Potassium resources are one of the seven major scarce mineral resources in China. For a long time, China depends on imports for potassium resources. It is not easy to find potassium deposits in China. After more than 50 years' exploration, it is difficult to get a new breakthrough for potassium in the saline lake. There are hundreds of millions of tons of low-grade potassium in Qarhan Salt Lake, Mahai, and Lop Nur, equivalent to a large potash deposit. The development and exploitation of low-grade potassium is an important and feasible direction to solve the shortage of potash in China. In this paper, the authors carried out field experiments on liquefaction and exploitation of low-grade solid potassium in Bieletan, Qinghai Province, mainly studying the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical change. In the process of converting low-grade solid potassium into liquid, there exists big difference of water level change in different units of the experimental area in different periods, showing that there are significant differences in geological structure, tectonics, and especially porosity in Bieletan. In the process, the content change of KCl in the brine is different. In the initial stage of the process, the change of KCl content of brine in the detective pit is opposite to that of water level, and where the water level rises obviously, the quality of the brine is poor. However, with the constant replenishing of the solvent and the increasing of reaction time between solid potassium and solvent, the KCl content of the brine in the experimental area tends to become average, but the overall content is low. After months of liquefaction of low-grade solid potassium, the KCl content of the brine is still low and doesn't rise obviously. These phenomena may be attributed to the fact that many years mining of low-grade potassium has led to the reduction of potassium minerals in this area.

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李瑞琴,刘成林,赵艳军,刘万平,王石军,江雨彤,2021,青海別勒滩试验区低品位固体钾盐液化开采的野外实验研究[J].岩石矿物学杂志,40(1):76~88.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-08-13
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-16
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