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天然硫化物矿物对地球深部热能的热电转化效应研究
Researches on thermoelectric conversion effect of natural sulfide minerals on deep earth thermal energy
投稿时间:2019-08-31  
中文关键词:硫化物  半导体矿物  热电效应  热电势  地热能转换
英文关键词:sulfide  semiconductor mineral  thermoelectric effect  thermoelectric potential  geothermal energy conversion
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(91951114,41872042,41522201,91851208)
作者单位E-mail
贾昊凝 造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室, 矿物环境功能北京市重点实验室, 北京大学 地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871  
李艳 造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室, 矿物环境功能北京市重点实验室, 北京大学 地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871 liyan-pku@pku.edu.cn 
黎晏彰 造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室, 矿物环境功能北京市重点实验室, 北京大学 地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871  
鲁安怀 造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室, 矿物环境功能北京市重点实验室, 北京大学 地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871  
丁竑瑞 造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室, 矿物环境功能北京市重点实验室, 北京大学 地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871  
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中文摘要:
      金属硫化物半导体矿物在地壳中分布广泛,其中一些禁带宽度较窄的硫化物矿物,如黄铁矿、黄铜矿和斑铜矿等,在地热梯度下产生的天然热电势可将地球内部热能转化为电能。本文选取黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、方铅矿、黄铜矿、斑铜矿以及斑铜矿-赤铁矿-辉铜矿集合体等天然硫化物矿物样品,研究了其热电特性。研究结果表明,300~700 K下,除磁黄铁矿具有低塞贝克系数和超高电导率而表现出金属导体的电输运行为外,黄铁矿和黄铜矿为n型半导体,斑铜矿和斑铜矿-赤铁矿-辉铜矿集合体为p型半导体,具有150~500 μV/K的显著塞贝克系数和5~95 S/cm的电导率,说明样品在地热梯度下具有产生显著热电效应的能力。根据激光闪射法测得的热扩散率以及样品的理论比热、密度计算热导率,斑铜矿及硫化物矿物集合体样品表现出小于1 W/(m·K)的低热导率,说明样品在局部热源影响下可形成较大温差。根据热电基本理论和地热梯度构建天然热电效应模型,对硫化物半导体矿物集合体产生的天然热电势、额外地表电流密度及热电转换效率进行了模拟计算得出经验公式,发现硫化物半导体矿物在300~650 K条件下能产生100 mV左右的天然热电势,产生的最大热电转化率可达4‰,且可以通过偶极电流源模型计算矿物体产生的额外地表电流密度。研究认为硫化物半导体矿物可能作为天然热电转换介质深刻影响地球内部能量的转化与传递过程。
英文摘要:
      Sulfide semiconductor minerals are widely distributed in the earth crust. Some of the sulfide minerals with narrow band gaps, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite, can generate natural thermoelectric potential to convert the thermal energy within the earth to electrical energy under the geothermal gradient. In this paper, the authors selected natural sulfide mineral samples such as pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, bornite and bornite-chalcocite-hematite mineral assemblage to study their thermoelectric properties. The results indicated that, at the temperature of 300~700 K, except that the pyrrhotite exhibited electrical transmission of metal conductors with low Seebeck coefficient and ultra-high conductivity, pyrite and chalcopyrite samples were n-type semiconductors, while bonite and the bornite-chalcocite-hematite mineral assemblage sample were p-type semiconductors, which exhibited significant Seebeck coefficient of 150~500 μV/K and a conductivity of 5~95 S/cm, indicating that samples had the capability for producing significant thermoelectric effects under geothermal gradients. Thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash diffusivity method, theoretical specific heat capacity and density of the sample, and the results of the thermal conductivity showed that bornite and the sulfide mineral assemblage samples exhibited low thermal conductivity less than 1 W/(m ·K), indicating that the samples could form a large temperature difference under the influence of local heat source. According to the basic theory of thermoelectricity and the geothermal gradient, the authors constructed the natural thermoelectric effect model to calculate the natural thermoelectric potential, additional surface current density and thermoelectric conversion efficiency generated by the sulfide semiconductor minerals, where empirical formulas were summarized. It is found that sulfide minerals can produce a natural thermoelectric potential of about 100 mV at 300~650 K, and the maximum thermoelectric conversion rate can reach 4‰. In addition, the additional surface current density generated by mineral bodies can be calculated by the dipole current source model. Therefore, sulfide semiconductor minerals may act as natural thermoelectric conversion media to profoundly affect the transformation and transfer of energy inside the Earth.
贾昊凝,李艳,黎晏彰,鲁安怀,丁竑瑞,2019,天然硫化物矿物对地球深部热能的热电转化效应研究[J].岩石矿物学杂志,38(6):815~822.
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