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缓冲期碳酸盐型尾矿重金属释放机制——柱淋滤实验研究
Mechanism of heavy metals release from carbonate-type tailings in buffering period: Column leaching test
投稿时间:2018-03-26  修订日期:2018-07-31
中文关键词:碳酸盐型尾矿  缓冲作用  元素赋存状态  重金属释放  中性矿山废水
英文关键词:carbonate-type tailings  buffering effect  elements occurrence state  heavy metals release  neutral mine drainage
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41272394,40972220)
作者单位
雷良奇 桂林理工大学 地球科学学院, 广西 桂林 541004 
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中文摘要:
      碳酸盐型尾矿在缓冲期/中性矿山废水(NMD)释放期的重金属污染问题易被忽视。本文以广西大厂锡石-硫化物尾矿作为研究对象,采用柱淋滤实验方法,探讨碳酸盐型尾矿在缓冲期重金属的释放机制,为此类型尾矿重金属污染的防治提供依据。实验结果表明,大厂尾矿在缓冲期(约7年,pH值为6.6~8.0)存在Sb、Zn、Cd、As(Pb)释放污染问题。在尾矿堆放初期(0.5年,pH值由7.6降至7.2),Zn、Sb、Cd快速、大量释出;中期(0.5~2.5年,pH值由7.2波动升高至8.0),Sb较平稳释出;后期(2.5~7年,pH值变化范围为8.0~6.6,呈降低趋势),受气温及pH值影响,As、Sb(Pb)呈波动或间歇振荡释出,即在夏季高温、pH值较高时,释出元素浓度较高,反之,在冬季低温、pH值较低时,释出元素浓度较低。重金属的释放与尾矿中硫化物的氧化程度高低及氧化先后顺序有关。这些矿物的氧化顺序大致为:闪锌矿(Zn、Cd)、辉锑锡铅矿(Sb)→脆硫锑铅矿(Sb)→毒砂(As)、方铅矿(Pb)。因此,对于(广西大厂)碳酸盐型尾矿在缓冲期的重金属污染应分阶段、季节(夏季),采取有针对性的防治措施;在缓冲期(7年)后应注意尾矿酸性矿山废水(AMD)+重金属(如As、Sb)复合污染的防治。
英文摘要:
      Heavy metal pollution from carbonate-type tailings in buffering/neutral mine drainage (NMD) period tends to be ignored. With the tailings of cassiterite-sulfide deposits in the Dachang ore district of Guangxi as the study object, the author conducted column leaching test to investigate the mechanism of heavy metals release from carbonate-type tailings in buffering period, so as to provide the basis for prevention and control of the heavy metal pollution involving the tailings. The results show that there probably exists the pollution of Sb, Zn, Cd, As (Pb) release from Dachangs tailings in the buffer period (about 7 years, with pH value being 6.6~8.0). At the beginning stage of tailings stacking (0 to 0.5 years, with pH value dropped from 7.6 to 7.2), Zn, Sb and Cd are quickly and heavily released; in the middle stage (0.5 to 2.5 years, with pH value fluctuating from 7.2 to 8.0), Sb is more smoothly released; in the late stage (2.5 to 7 years, with pH value changing between 8.0 and 6.6, showing a decreasing trend), As, Sb (Pb) fluctuate periodically or intermittently following air temperature and pH value, implying that when temperature and pH value are high in summer, element concentrations are higher; on the contrary, element concentrations are lower with the lowering temperature and pH value in winter. The heavy metals release is related to the oxidation degree/oxidation sequence of sulfide minerals that the metals are hosted in. The oxidation sequence of these minerals are sphalerite (Zn, Cd), franckeite (Sb)→jamesonite (Sb) →arsenopyrite (As), galena (Pb). Therefore, the measures to prevent and control the heavy metal pollution of the carbonate-type tailings (Dachang, Guangxi) in the buffering period should be carried out targetedly on the basis of tailings stocking stage and season (summer). After the buffer period (7 years), researchers should pay attention to the pollution combining the acid mine drainage (AMD) with heavy metals (As, Sb).
雷良奇,2019,缓冲期碳酸盐型尾矿重金属释放机制——柱淋滤实验研究[J].岩石矿物学杂志,38(1):131~142.
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